Staffordshire University logo
STORE - Staffordshire Online Repository

Inter - Observer Error for Area of Origin Analysis Using FARO Zone 3D

Griffiths, Gareth, Liscio, Eugene, Guryn, Helen, Le, Quan, Northfield, Dean and WILLIAMS, Graham (2021) Inter - Observer Error for Area of Origin Analysis Using FARO Zone 3D. Science and Justice, 3 (May). pp. 291-298. ISSN 1355-0306

Available under License Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).

Download (344kB) | Preview

Abstract or description

In a bloodletting incident, the area of origin (AO) of an impact bloodstain pattern is crucial when establishing the sequence of events. The use of laser scanners and other three-dimensional (3D) technologies to document and analyse bloodstains have been the subject of previous papers, especially where AO analysis is concerned. FARO Zone 3D (FZ3D) is a relatively new software programme that can be used for bloodstain AO analysis. FZ3D requires a greater understanding of inter-observer errors associated with AO. This study looked at the inter-observer variation between 21 examiners when repeatedly calculating the AO six times for a single impact pattern on a plain white wall. An impact rig which consisted of a spring tension arm was positioned and fixed 45 cm from the X wall (right wall), and 45 cm from the Y wall (left wall). This experimental design resembles an impact blow for a bloodletting event. The AO was unknown to all examiners, making it a blind study. The collected results were documented in a Microsoft Excel datasheet and later analysed. From previous literature, a 30 cm acceptable allowance was utilised for AO analysis; however, there is currently no accepted standard error for this type of analysis. The overall total 3D mean error for all examiners was 5.62 cm. The maximum error for any one impact analysis was 24.27 cm. The variation of the data, which was collected by all examiners, was documented as X = 1.14 cm, Y = 1.24 cm, Z = 1.68 cm, and the total 3D error = 2.28 cm. The total 3D error for any one examiner and the variance between examiners did not exceed the 30 cm acceptable allowance utilised in previous literature.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bloodstain pattern analysis; 3D forensics; FARO Focus S350 laser scanner; Crime scene reconstruction; Forensic science; Impact pattern; Stringing
Faculty: School of Law, Policing and Forensics > Forensic Sciences and Policing
Depositing User: Graham WILLIAMS
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2021 14:28
Last Modified: 06 Apr 2023 14:56

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

DisabledGo Staffordshire University is a recognised   Investor in People. Sustain Staffs
Legal | Freedom of Information | Site Map | Job Vacancies
Staffordshire University, College Road, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire ST4 2DE t: +44 (0)1782 294000