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The effect of forming implementation intentions on alcohol consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Cooke, Richard, McEwan, Helen and Norman, Paul (2022) The effect of forming implementation intentions on alcohol consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug and Alcohol Review. ISSN 0959-5236

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Abstract or description

Issues: Meta-analysis was used to estimate the effect of forming implementation intentions (i.e., if-then plans) on weekly alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Sample type, mode of delivery, intervention format and timeframe were tested as moderator variables.

Approach: Cochrane, EThOS, Google Scholar, PsychArticles, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant publications to 31st March 2021. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the effect size difference (d) between individuals forming vs. not forming implementation intentions on weekly consumption and HED.

Key Findings: Sixteen studies were included in meta-analyses. The effect size difference for forming implementation intentions on weekly alcohol consumption was d+ = -0.14 CI [-0.24; -0.03]. Moderator analyses highlighted stronger effects for (1) community (d+ = -0.38, CI [-0.58; -0.18]) versus university (d+ = -0.04, CI [-0.13; 0.05]) samples, (2) paper (d+ = -0.26, CI [-0.43; -0.09] versus online (d+ = -0.04, CI [-0.14; 0.06]) mode of delivery, and (3) Volitional help sheet (d+ = -0.34, CI [-0.60; -0.07]) versus implementation intention format (d+ = -0.07, CI [-0.16; 0.02]). In addition, effects diminished over time (B = 0.02, SE = 0.01, CI [0.03; 0.01]). Forming implementation intentions had a null effect on HED, d+ = -0.01 CI [-0.10; 0.08].

Implications: Forming implementation intentions reduces weekly consumption but has no effect on HED.

Conclusion: This review identifies boundary conditions on the effectiveness of implementation intentions to reduce alcohol consumption. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of online-delivered interventions and integrating implementation intention and motivational interventions.

Item Type: Article
Faculty: School of Life Sciences and Education > Psychology and Counselling
Depositing User: Richard COOKE
Date Deposited: 28 Oct 2022 15:23
Last Modified: 28 Oct 2022 15:23
URI: https://eprints.staffs.ac.uk/id/eprint/7484

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